Morogoro Region is one of the 26 regions of Tanzania mainland. It has an area of 72,939 square kilometers. It is the second largest region in the country after Tabora. The population is 2,229,292 as per 2012 National Population Census with the population growth rate estimated to be 2.9 per annum.

The Regional Referral Hospital started on the year 1945 after the Second World War, its building was used as camps, then the government by then under the leadership of late Mwl. J. Kambarage Nyerere it was decided to be a hospital. In the year 2010 Morogoro Hospital becomes Regional Referral Hospital which serves 2,229,292 people Regional wise. MRRH serves as a Regional referral for all health facilities Government, Faith Based Organizations and Private in the Region. It also serves as District hospital for four Councils (Morogoro Municipal, Morogoro District Council, Mvomero and Gairo) which do not have District Hospitals.

Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital has bed capacity of 450 but the space for now accommodates 365 beds only. The hospital serves about 450-500 patients per day, 70-80 admissions per day. Morogoro regional referral hospital has an average of 120-125 staff on duty station per day (all cadres).

The patients are referred to MRRH from different levels of care (Dispensaries, Health Centers and Hospitals) using Referral forms designed for the Region. Sometimes prior information is sent through telephone before referral is initiated. MRRH provides transport to support referral whenever a need arises. MRRH refer cases to Muhimbili National Hospital, Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute, Ocean Road Cancer Institute and Mirembe Hospital Dodoma

The Regional Referral Hospital activities are supervised by the Medical Officer In charge who is assisted by Heads of Departments and Sections. Their chain of communication is as indicated in the Organogram structure.